|No||Battery Size||Battery Wrap||Battery Positve Terminal||Material||Nominal Voltage,
|1||18650||Black||Button Top /
|2||18650 with Cable Connector||Green||Flat Top||lithium ion||3.7V||4.25V||3.0V||18||65||2600mAh|
|3||18650 with Micro USB Charging Port||Red||Button Top||lithium ion||3.7V||4.25V||3.0V||18||65||2600mAh
Cobalt is a bit more complex. Its major source is the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which has a history of violent conflict and corruption. “That’s been a challenge,” Olivetti says. Cobalt is typically produced as a byproduct of other mining activity. “Often a mine’s revenue comes from nickel, and cobalt is a secondary product,” she says.
But the main potential cause of delays in obtaining new supplies of the mineral comes from not its inherent geographic distribution, but the actual extraction infrastructure. “The delay is in the ability to open new mines,” she says. “With any of these things, the material is out there, but the question is at what price.” To guard against possible disruptions in the cobalt supply, she says, researchers “are trying to move to cathode materials [for lithium-ion batteries] that are less cobalt-dependent.”
The study looked out over the next 15 years, and within that time frame, Olivetti says, there are potentially some bottlenecks in the supply chain, but no serious obstacles to meeting the rising demand. Still, she says, “it’s important for stakeholders to be aware of the bottlenecks,” as unanticipated supply disruptions could put some companies out of business. Companies need to think about alternative sources, and “know where and when to panic.”